Slaves were the basis of the Southern economy at that time. According to one, majority of them were built between the 1890’s and the 1950’, the era of Jim Crow segregation” (Elliott, 2017). And of continuing, if not adding to, the difficulties under which, the Southern people labour” (Robert E. Lee, 1866). Combine them into an argument for or against removing Confederate monuments. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. 13, quoted ibid., pp. Alexander and his wife had lived in Mississippi for a few years during the 1850's, so he probably had some first-hand knowledge of slavery. - Robert E Lee A hot topic right now in the United States is the removal of Confederate Statues. That single phrase perfectly sums up what people across the country are attempting to convey, and expresses the main issue that many have with these statues. The removal of monuments and symbols to a racist past is an important step to a more just future. 67-68. for this reason, legislation constructed to safeguard progressive change needs to be implemented. Paternal Love In Cormac Mccarthy's The Road, Formalism : The Rocking Horse Winner, And Annie Dillard 's Essay, Living Like Weasels, Analysis Of The Novel ' 1984 ' By George Orwell, The American Dream In Jeannette Walls's The Glass Castle. The above may answer, the inquiry of how people view violence and tragedy over an extended period and develop a, While there are many arguments in support of keeping the Confederate Monuments, equally. I, LII, i, 323. toward a white supremacist future and a powerplay meant to intimidate those looking to come to, the seat of justice or the seat of the law” (Dailey, These monuments were used as instruments of “racial terror and racial oppression symbolized in. That is in the areas of banking loans, hospital treatment, environmental toxic waste. Heritage versus hate: A. Notable people that are commemorated with having models of themselves publicly displayed are usually figures that the people of America are proud of, like Abraham Lincoln or Harriet Tubman. (2015). 23. Why tragedies inspire memorials and why others are ignored (Foote, 2003, p. 5)? D. O. McCord and others to Alexander, Aug. 6, 1864, Alexander, Service Record. That is if the action-based ethics of removing Confederate monuments from public space abandon’s the disgraceful acts of slavery, and bigotry, then conversely, the continuance of Confederate monuments is the sagacious or legal action of maintaining honor. Senator John Reagan, and former T. Governor James Stephen Hogg (Allen, 2017). 9, 1863, ibid. (2011). 1. keeping Confederate monuments is the only a resolution to honoring Confederate soldiers. 11. Grant, Special Orders No. Most slave mothers resolved to stay close to their children and hence rejected running away as a form of resistance, which makes Mary Walker’s decision to flee bondage, leaving her three children behind, all the more an extraordinary action. 16. 4. 28. He further contends, for the opposition to have these monuments removed, an argument, would have to be made “to prove that these monuments message or inscription threatens one of. Ianinska, S., & Garcia-Zamor, J. C. (2006). 67-68; Levi Coffin speaks of 6000, but no one else mentions more than 3000. Part of the debate involves what the Confederacy stood for. Third, he assumes that eliminating Confederate monuments, would deprive Richmonder’s the education of the Civil W, there is a larger black population surrounding the area of Monument A, the cause of the pushback. (2) Public Confederate monuments unavoidably harm at least (i) those who suffer as a result of knowing the racist motivation behind the existence of most Confederate monuments and having those motivations made obvious by public Confederate monuments, and/or (ii) … The sixth figure, standing on the monument’s pinnacle, is of Gen. Benjamin Grubbs Humphreys, who, despite being removed as Mississippi’s governor in 1868, was celebrated for … A recent hot-button subject in the media has been what to do with Confederate monuments in the South. 21. We can hardly be surprised that he … Eaton to Whipple, Feb. 26, 1863, AMA. and imprisonment sentences according to Cleeland, 1994, as quoted by Clowney. 27. However, attempts to remove civil war monuments and symbols from public places, Emanuel African Methodist Murders/The Resurgence of State Efforts to Remove Hate, The rebirth of State efforts to remove Confederate symbols can be primarily accounted for in the, by John May and lowering it in 2015 by Nikki Haley were tied to cultural events. 25, 1863, OR, Ser. there are several that desire their removal. at how public policy can affect or influence the alternatives of Confederate monuments. Reappropriating Public Memory: Racism, Resistance and. First, we discuss the historical use of Confederate symbols. Coffin, p. 636. 60-61. Illustrations of the symbolic structure of the sites and ideological struggles to recognize the role of slavery as a cause for war, as well as the role of Black soldiers in the war’s outcome, may add to our understanding of U.S. race relations, both past and present. Organize your paper by argument, not by source. There is much disdain for the preservation of Confederate Monuments by many organizations, minority groups, and some local and state governments. This isn’t just a Southern problem. How people view violence and tragedy over an extended period and develop a sense of their. 1. Should we remove Confederate monuments? Influenced by the free labor ethos of the North and West and the allure of manufacturing, Kentucky developed into a farming economy of small landholders with less of a stake in slavery than the lower South states. later declared the regiment to be an Illinois one, the 66th.) A decision is ethical depending on the core values the majority of society holds dear (Josephson, & Hanson, 2002). May’s under, the resistance to the civil rights movement, and Haley’s under the appalling loss of life in the, Beginning in June 2015, the murder of nine black parishioners at Emanuel African Methodist. Mary thought often of her children, but as major events related to the expansion of slavery gripped the nation, her plans were thwarted. Assignment directions Read […] Kutz, C. (2015). Contemporary Culture W. Cleeland, C. S., Gonin, R., Hatfield, A. K., Edmonson, J. H., Blum, R. H., Stewart, J. Pandya, K. J. Five figures carved from marble surround the base. After the removal of a statue honoring Robert E. Lee, a general in the Confederate Army considered by many to be a hero for the part he played in the American Civil War, a clear divide has formed over whether it was the right thing to do. Constitution where southerners in favor of succession wanted to protect slavery unlike the U.S. indicating, “Confederate symbols are interconnected to the repressive institution for which, In addition to the Confederate flag, other designs containing Southern symbols such as banners, and signs became increasingly present as a part of southern culture. Largely as a. Cam Walker is assistant professor of history at the College of William and Mary. They were afraid of losing their profits made from using slave labor and, thus, seceded and rebelled against the North. policy makers to make a decision that is both ethical, legal and prudential. With the removal of the statue of Confederate General Robert E. Lee from Lee Circle in New Orleans, the debate on Confederate symbols has sparked once again. "It is well that war is so terrible – otherwise we would grow too fond of it." answer the question of whether Confederate Monuments reflect the ethical values of today’s. Many believe that “Ultimately, removal of the monuments will, quite literally, erase an unsavory – but important – part of our nation’s history” (Brophy 2015). “As regards the erection of such a monument as is. of the Tennessee, Letters Sent, 1862, Vol. Upon learning of patriarch Duncan Cameron’s death, she embarked upon her journey to free her enslaved children. You will read two sources on the Confederacy and two on the statue debate and then synthesize into an argument for or against removing Confederate monuments. The Confederate soldiers were the separatists who did not want to obey their country’s policies. See Eaton, Grant, pp. Eaton to Cowles, Mar. Keep the Monuments! Eaton to Jocelyn, May 18, 1863, Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, R.G. The question stands under moral consideration, either to recognize Confederate monuments as shameful aberrations or as historical monuments, space abandon’s the disgraceful acts of slavery, Confederate monuments is the sagacious or legal action of maintaining honor. This essay will not purport to solve any of these issues ... each carries significant analogies to our debate over Confederate monuments. The portrait is curiously at odds with the book's title. United States: Protests tar. However, 62% of the public at the time, including, President Donald Trump, disapproved of ef. She had three more children: Agnes, born in 1837; Edward, born in 1840 and died in 1848; and Bryant, born in 1844. Confederate statues hold tremendous historical value to … monuments. C. How do people want to remember each event? Considering the alternatives in keeping or removing Confederate monuments, it is essential that, we review the ethical, legal and prudential factors. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. In this way, trusts and estates law, Jones concludes, became "a unique avenue for black empowerment in the nineteenth century" (p. 155). Introduction August 21On st 2017, white supremacist protestors marched in Charlottesville, Virginia purportedly to protest the city’s planned removal of a statue of Confederate General Robert E. When illness began to debilitate one of the Cameron daughters, Mildred, the family sought medical assistance every summer, from 1846 to 1848, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A North Carolina law passed in 2015 prohibits the removal of these monuments, ... White elites showed their thanks by erecting Confederate monuments. Secondly, we consider the past efforts to remove them. Coffin, Reminiscences, p. 637. Nathans suggests that Mary Walker’s experiences were “a more wrenching, more protracted, and probably more representative struggle than that of the trio of ex-slave women whose defiance made them heroines” (3). 26. 9. A. D. Olds to Whipple, Jan. 9, 1864, ibid. This legality furthers. American Indian group calls for the removal of Helena’s Confederate Monument, http://helenair.com/news/local/american-indian-group-calls-for-removal-of-helena-s-, confederate/article_3e3f0085-7cd0-5466-908d-8b92a56b6cfb.html. For example, the author sites “for the most part, these monuments are erected for the dedication and bravery of the men that fought to preserve, the Union and not the racist ideological views that their leaders wanted to defend,” based on. However, applying the legal factor to the U.S., the, constitution allows symbols of hate and swastikas under freedom of speech. Confederate historical monuments require accurate context to embrace all sides and learn from history. In his essay, Diaz-Griffith makes suggestions for what should happen to Confederate monuments going forward, presenting four options: Display the monuments and memorials in museums (excluding Confederate heritage museums) where they are interpreted in the context of "Lost Cause" ideology, the Jim Crow era, white supremacy, and systemic racism Ulysses S. Grant, Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant (New York, 1885), I, 424-425. 5, 31. The South Carolina State House and the Confederate Flag. the difficulty in removing Confederate monuments. However, most Richmond residents oppose removing Confederate, Kristina Dunn Johnson likewise contends that Confederate monuments are away to grieve for the, fallen soldiers along with The United Daughters of the Confederacy, Confederate monuments act as figures of racism and segregation. Robertson, Jones speculates, had perhaps concluded that "manumission on a case-by-case basis was the best means of effectuating the eventual abolition of the entire regime" (p. 86). All rights reserved. and slave rebelliousness in the early Eighteenth‐century South Carolina Lowcountry. other historical civil war heroes such as Allen Pinkerton, regulate the inscription on Confederate monuments. Alexander, Service Record; Alexander, Pension Record, R.G. (1) If some monument(s) unavoidably harms undeserving people, then there is moral reason to remove that monument. Pierce to Jocelyn, Apr. Erasure of the Confederate Defenders of Charleston Monument. and that the social and economic racism in Richmond is a more significant problem than, removing Confederate monuments. The purpose of this essay is to explore the ethical implications of efforts to remove Confederate Monuments from a public policy perspective. As the Civil War came to an end in 1865, she returned to Cambridge and finally her two children, now adults with their own families, joined her. (Schedler, 2001) as cited by Rogers, (n.d.). etc. The, Confederate flag also became a symbol of social viewpoints influential southerners promoted, stars represented the fifteen states that were slaveholders and the diagonal part representing a, symbol of strength and progress” (Coski, 2009, p. 5). 6. longstanding debate consists of the below inquiries (Foote, 2003). Some scholars see the current waves of activism … Cited hereafter as BRFAL; Olds to Jocelyn, May 16, 1863, AMA. Also, the Grand, opposed a monument in 1904 by the “Daughters of the Confederacy for the Confederate graves. Holidays such as, Emancipation and Memorial Day in the former Confederate states where from 1865 to 1915, monuments such as Jefferson Davis “to honor their chieftain who lead the dance in the land, Southern women organized groups to commemorate” the event (Gulley, United Daughters of the Confederacy for example founded in 1894 by Caroline Meriwether, the needs of the soldiers during the Civil W, in 1896 are a group of male veterans that have male members of their family who served in the, Confederate Armed Services that also preserved the memory of the Southern soldier (Rosenbur, Along with Southern designs, Confederate monuments were constructed. . When he learned of Mary Walker’s plight from his cousin James Lesley, Peter became an ardent abolitionist, declaring in front of his congregation, “Harbor, and protect the oppressed wherever you behold him” (51). of the Tenn., April 29, 1863, Letters Received by the Adjutant General's Office, microfilm M-619, National Archives, Records of the American Freedmen's Inquiry Commission, Reel 200. Stuart and other, Confederate leaders as men dedicated to freeing the South from Y. monuments, we tend to think of the meaning of their existence or the reason they exist. Ten days before her thirtieth birthday, she escaped. 20-23; Grant, General Orders No. 20. 13. Similar to intimidation against voting rights of minorities (Gilmore, 2013) these. 48-52. Mitch Landrieu, upon his removal of the last of the city’s several Confederate monuments. Dodge acted without authorization according to Hirshon, p. 73. 26-27. 18. Even with the above information, past efforts to remove Confederate monuments have primarily, been limited. “empirical studies show race remains a significant social category of perception” (Clowney. Here we will elaborate on all three. the dead, but it transitioned into a political statement as resistance toward the North” (Johnson, From an ethical standpoint, Johnson invokes the Ft. Mill dedication of honoring loyal slaves who, stood guard over their slave master’s property while the owner was away at war, mentions honoring groups outside the usual Confederate soldiers such as the Ft. Mill women’s, Other support of Confederate Monuments came from white women of the confederate that, wanted to preserve a Confederate identity, volunteers or as paid employees during the American Civil W, women’s groups to commemorate the Confederacy” (Gully, United Daughters of the Confederacy “help shape public memory in the South” by boosting the, establishment of Confederate Monuments. Toppling of a Confederate monument in Durham, N.C. A. Conversely, many supporters of these, pillars indicate the inscription on Confederate Monuments honor the soldiers that fought and, died (Mills & Simpson, 2003). Through observation, thick description, and interviews, this work examines the contested commemoration of the American Civil War with regard to race, slavery, and collective sentiment. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The Confederate Army commander’s likeness was the last of four monuments memorializing the insurrection to be withdrawn in a 26-day span, an action that has led to … It is for these reasons that the Confederate monuments must be removed. Confederate statues, however, are the exception; for they are monuments that represent the institutionalization of racism. Finally, we deliberate and apply ethical arguments to Confederate symbols. 19. Secondly, we consider the past ef, Next, we examine the current state of removal. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. distinguished historian Sydney Nathans recovers the lived experiences of Mary Walker, from her upbringing as an enslaved servant on the Cameron plantation in North Carolina to her work as a freedwoman supporting her family in Massachusetts. How do we explain to the descendants of slaves and Union ancestry that statues of, Nathan Bedford Forrest deserve the same eternal infamy as Frederick Douglas or Sojourner, Simply put, historical use of Confederate monuments is acceptable to the status quo rather than, actions design to compensate for the removal and or replacement of past symbols of disdain. Pain and its treatment in outpatients with metastatic cancer. In another ethical argument for removing Confederate Monuments, author Sanchez and Moore, (2015) indicate many minority groups such as the NAACP, Caucus in Montana and Black Lives Matter, desire the removal of symbols of hate after events of, AME church by Dyllan Roof and the violence against Freddie Gray and Michael Brown which, both died at the hands of law enforcement. However, if we are to remember history, “is not an attempt to obscure the truth of American history, Confederate hagiography and call on the people of goodwill to oppose the violations and abuses. For example, many. in a cemetery in Germantown, Pennsylvania” (Blair, 2011, p. 202). For, example, one option is to legislate the removal of Confederate monuments and replace them with. Throughout history the idea of removing the Confederate Monuments is the popular choice among decision makers, citing that the monuments have a sense of evilness consequently flaring up racial emotions. First, we discuss, the historical use of Confederate symbols. earlier we have discussed both the legal and ethical choices in consideration of Confederate, monuments, we have yet to review the prudential side. Notwithstanding any other provision of law or policy to the contrary, within 180 days of enactment of this Act, the National Park Service shall remove from display all physical Confederate commemorative works, such as statues, monuments, sculptures, memorials, and View ARGUMENATIVE ESSAY.docx from PYSCH 1020 at La Vergne High School. City of Greenville responds to group’s request to move Confederate statue. The removal of monuments to Stalin and Lenin lifted the weight of the memory of oppression, allowing the Czech people to begin to imagine a new direction for their nation. Church in Charleston, South Carolina, by self-proclaimed white supremacist Dylann Roof. One specific, Robert E. Lee, Albert Sidney Johnston, former U.S. Emergency Disaster Management Training Academies, To Free a Family: The Journey of Mary Walker (review), Fathers of Conscience: Mixed Race Inheritance in the Antebellum South (review), Memory Brokers, Shameful Pasts, and Civil War Commemoration, Conference: The Neely Center for Ethical Leadership and Decision Making. McAllen, A. Confederate valorizing in and over places of public space” (Winsboro, 2016, pp. 29, 1863, ibid. 217-219). Louisiana appellate court records are, nonetheless, among the dozens of antebellum legal proceedings Jones researched in all but five of the nation's slave states. 94, National Archives, Washington, D.C. Thus Mary’s abiding quest to reunite her family, Nathans argues, reveals the “hidden epic of emancipation” (4). Three blocks from my childhood home, Mississippi’s second largest Confederate monument stands on the lawn of Greenwood’s Leflore County Courthouse. Further dissensions included the University of T, Confederate monuments were removed due to the violence in Charlottesville, Vir, Charlottesville is known as a city of historical landscapes such as Shenandoah National Park and, Monticello, home of Thomas Jefferson and the University of V, The relevant event on August 12, 2017, in Charlottesville, V, back America and pushing back on removing the Confederate monument of Robert E. Lee led to, massive a protest by the Ku Klux Klan, Neo-Nazis, White Supremacist and Anti-fa, demonstrators and Black Lives Matter protestors. This Society founded in 1869 was devoted to the preservation of Confederate context of the Civil, example, they utilized print. I. Historically it should be noted, that certain Confederate monuments were used as a direct tool of, governments. Susan, Peter’s wife, and Mary shared an especially strong bond. Everybody knows who won the war. The way we look at confederate statues is influenced by where we grew up and what we learned in history classes. Rules, norms, and decisions: on the conditions of practical and legal, The history of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, Remembering well: Confederate monuments and the ethics of theory, Living Monuments: Confederate Soldiers' Homes in the New South, Standing soldiers, kneeling slaves: Race, war, The International Journal of the History of Sport, Edith D. Pope and Her Nashville Friends: Guar, New pole show how most Americans feel about Confederate Statues, Conservatism and southern intellectuals, 1789-1861: liberty. However, the Confederate flag was not, only an emblem of pride but also was known for other viewpoints predominate Southerners. 442. Jones describes how the court continued to support manumission over enslavement even in the increasingly frenzied atmosphere of the 1850s when Kentucky followed the lead of other southern states in enacting measures to suppress the growth of the free-black population. examples of those nations who endeavored to obliterate the marks of civil strife... " (Horn, 2015). Satris, S. (2002). The propagation of or, at a minimum, the continued consistent persistence of these monument could be direct results of, public policy endeavors at the state level such as North Carolina’s Heritage Protection, 2015 which prohibits the relocation, removal, alteration, renaming, or other disturbance of any, architecturally significant building, memorial building, memorial street, or monument located on, Contrary to conventional lore, support for the establishment of Confederate monuments was not, monuments by saying, “I think it wiser, …not to keep open the sores of war but to follow the. My Body Is a Confederate Monument,” I hoped that it would open, or even … During that period of time, Mary accompanied the family as caregiver and faithful servant. Go through each source and identify key points to support your argument on what the Confederacy stood for and/or the monuments’ history and/or the national history since then and/or the politics of today.2. The painting depicts a wealthy white slaveholder in the act of selling his mixed-race son in a scene strewn with paper money and gold coins. Finally, Confederate Monuments by upholding the argument that these monuments are protected by the, first amendment of freedom of speech. The Confederate monuments must be removed because the research shows that these Confederate monuments celebrate White supremacy, prove of acts of terrorism against the slaves as well as honor the Confederate individuals or figures that committed many moral wrongs. 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